Preview: L3 Fusion rocket complete!

I gave a brief preview in a recent post, but I’m excited to report that the L3 Fusion rocket is now finished. This is a kit available for pre-order from Scott Binder at SBR, and I was fortunate enough to partner with Scott to do a test build on his latest design.

Large white rocket with "Fusion" decal, on display on a table
L3 Fusion rocket on display

As mentioned a while back, the L3 Fusion is a larger, upscaled version of his classic Fusion rocket. It has a 5.5″ diameter airframe and is about 90 inches in length, with a 75mm motor mount tube capable of flying on an M motor. What’s particularly great about this rocket is that it combines strength with being lightweight. Its cardboard airframe weighs in at just 11 lbs when fully loaded, minus the motor.

And yet it’s fully double-tubed from top to bottom, and the entire interior is coated with West System epoxy to harden and strengthen it. This thing can take a beating, and it is more than strong enough to handle an M motor.

Rocket motor parts on table, before assembly
Aerotech M-1297 motor, before assembly

I plan to fly it for L3 certification on an Aerotech M-1297 motor. Believe it or not, this will be my first time using a reloadable (RMS) motor, and my first time putting one together. I’ve previously just used disposable (DMS) motors since they’re so easy to handle – minimal preparation, and then discard entirely after the single use. But having now built the M-1297 in preparing to fly, I have to admit there’s something satisfying about putting together the motor yourself. Of course, it’s a bit messy and you’ll get your hands dirty – and the casing is not cheap – but the end product speaks for itself.

Two men standing in a workshop, holding large white rockets

In addition to building the rocket, we also set up a small studio and filmed the entire project, from start to finish. Throughout the process, I try to explain what I’m doing, though I’m far from an expert (I am, after all, just applying for my L3 certification). It was a lot to film, and as you can imagine, the video editing process is extremely time-consuming (props to Scott for undertaking this). But it should make for a great tutorial on YouTube, and I’ll post the video as soon as it’s ready!

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 14: ground testing

The final chapter in the long saga of building the Darkstar Extreme: ground testing.

Actually, I don’t know whether I should have saved this step for the end. I’ve been looking at what some other folks do, and I’ve seen several people conduct ground testing as soon as the rocket is technically built, but prior to any kind of priming or painting, or adding other finishing touches. To be honest, that probably makes more sense because it’s bound to suffer some minor scratches and scrapes during testing, so better to do it “naked” and paint it later. Fortunately, I don’t care!

long blue rocket on wooden test stand, on grass - angled front view
testing time

Just to take a step back and recap what I’m even doing here: ground testing is important to test the electronics inside the rocket and make sure everything is wired up and working properly. I won’t go into the details of the electronics bay, but there are a lot of things connected to other things, and then there are more things. If even a single connection is loose or comes apart, the whole e-bay could cease to perform its basic function.

And by “its basic function,” I mean the flight computer (circuit board), connected to both a battery and an on/off switch, needs to be powered on and fire a charge at the right moment, which causes an electric match to spark, which causes some carefully packed black powder to explode, which causes the rocket to separate in a pre-determined place. And then it all needs to happen again to cause the rocket to separate in a different place. Parachutes deploy, rocket lands safely.

long blue rocket on wooden test stand, on grass - side view
might need a better test stand

Aside from generally checking that the electronics and wiring work correctly, ground testing is particularly important to determine the appropriate amount of black powder (BP) to use. There are different types of BP, and there are many online calculators that will tell you, based on the volume of your rocket’s interior space and your desired pounds per square inch (PSI), how much BP you should use exactly. However, actual conditions can vary, and it’s a good idea to test – and test again.

Ultimately, you want to use enough BP to ensure that the rocket separates, forcefully. Really forcefully. With verve. Anything less than this could cause a failure to separate, which means the parachute probably won’t deploy, which could be catastrophic for the rocket (and potentially any hapless bystanders). Of course, you don’t want to use so much BP that the explosion itself destroys your rocket, either. It’s a fine line. Your precious rocket hangs in the balance.

long blue rocket resting on box, on grass - side view
problem solved

I did multiple rounds of ground testing on different days (note the color variation and also choice of test stands in the different photos). On that note: never use a more elaborate test stand than necessary. Here I was, building a crude stand out of wood, like a sucker! I could have just been using a cardboard box all along. The angle is better anyway.

The calculator told me that I should use about 2.5 grams of BP, but I found that I needed to use closer to 3.0 grams to really separate the rocket forcefully. I also have a backup flight computer with its own separate charges, and for the backup I will use about 4.0 grams of BP. Gotta make sure it gets the job done.

rocket parts spread across grass in back yard, after separation
as god intended

It’s debatable whether this testing is really part of the rocket’s construction, strictly speaking, but in any event this was the final step before launching the rocket out in the field.

Now it’s time to fly!

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 12: primer and paint

All the difficult and time-consuming rocket construction steps are basically complete. The drilling and sanding fiberglass is done, the epoxy has cured, and technically, you can fly it “naked” at this point. But a painted rocket just adds that extra touch of class, and we are nothing if not classy.

Before getting started here, a couple of tips and some basic prep. There are a few parts that you might want to cover before spraying anything: things like the aluminum tip on the nose cone, the aluminum motor retainer, and the rail buttons. You can use masking tape to manually cover up these things pretty easily.

rocket disassembled on cardboard and grass, no paint or primer
“naked” rocket

Also, keep in mind that where a coupler slides into another section of the airframe with a snug fit, you don’t want to build up multiple layers of primer and paint, or things won’t fit at all anymore, without sanding the paint off. You may want to cover coupler ends with masking tape as well to save yourself trouble later.

So, to begin: lay out the rocket on cardboard or somewhere that you don’t mind getting turned into a rainbow of colors. Spray a thin layer of primer over everything (I chose a simple white primer) and use a quick back and forth motion. Don’t spray too close, and keep it continually moving while spraying, so that paint doesn’t build up too much in any single area. You can always come back and spray again and again, lightly with a thin coat each time.

rocket disassembled on cardboard and grass, white primer applied
applying primer

Of course, since the parts are lying on the ground, you can’t get underneath and will need to wait for them to dry and then rotate them. Depending on how much you’re able to coat the pieces each time, you may need to rotate them just once, or perhaps twice.

Finally, once everything has a nice layer of primer and it’s dry, you can begin spraying paint. The colors and design are totally up to you, but I would certainly recommend a high gloss finish.

rocket disassembled on cardboard and grass, painted glossy navy blue
roses are red, rockets are blue

In my case, I went with a glossy navy blue for the rocket body. I then used “sunshine yellow,” also glossy, for the fins and the vent ring around the e-bay. Note that it didn’t matter if the layers of navy blue got all over the fins, but once this was finished, I had to use more masking tape to very carefully and thoroughly mark off the fins from the rest of the body. I also used some brown paper grocery bags, tearing them up into approximate sizes to cover the rocket between and around the fins, with masking tape at the edges sealing it off to create sharp and exact lines.

I’m no expert painter; this is only the second rocket I’ve ever painted. But I think once finished, it turned out pretty well.

completed rocket standing vertically, painted navy blue with yellow fins
the rocket stands on end taller than you

Of course, this paint job is bound to get scratched, scuffed, and generally deteriorate over time. The rocket gets disassembled and re-assembled, and parts bump and bang into each other, and of course upon landing after even a single flight it will get dirty and a bit dinged, no doubt. I can always touch up the paint in the future when that happens, and it doesn’t really matter – it’s purely cosmetic. But it is fun and it just completes the look.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 11: fin fillets

The epic fin-ale to the fin attachment series! (Pun intended.)

So far, we’ve attached the fins using the “through the wall” method with epoxy at several points: (1) the fin root, where it directly touches the motor mount tube, and (2) all along the inside edges of the fins and motor mount tube using a syringe to inject it. This created an incredibly strong foundation (especially by mixing some chopped carbon fiber into the epoxy), and at last we can turn to (3) the outside of the rocket to create fin fillets.

fiberglass rocket and fins on workbench, with masking tape creating lines
making tape to create lines

The first step here is to measure and mark approx. 3/8 inch from the joint, along both the airframe and the fin itself, and draw parallel lines on each. Then follow this up with masking tape along the full length of each line. Using this technique, you can apply the epoxy fillet, and when you remove the tape afterwards, it will leave a very clean edge. Generally you want to wait before removing the tape so the epoxy has a chance to partially cure – but it’s easiest to remove the tape if you do so before it fully cures.

rear view of rocket with epoxy fin fillets
aerodynamic and aesthetically pleasing

For the epoxy mixture, the difference this time will be the addition of a thickening agent so it’s not quite as runny and it maintains its shape. Specifically, this means first mixing the two part epoxy (resin and hardener), then mixing in some chopped carbon fiber as before, and finally adding the thickener.

As I mentioned earlier, I’m using West System resin and hardener, and also for the thickener. The stuff is extremely lightweight – so much that it’s almost difficult to even take the can’s lid on or off, as the slightest breeze or air movement will cause it to fly up into the air like dust. Of course, this is something that should be done only while wearing a respirator or face mask.

Once the epoxy is sufficiently thickened, it should have the consistency of peanut butter – spreadable, but will more or less hold its shape.

Finally, a round length of wood (e.g. a broomstick) or plastic (e.g. metal pipe or PVC pipe) will be very helpful at this stage, particularly one that has a 3/4″ or 1″ diameter. I happened to have some spare 3/4″ PVC pipe lying around from my earlier project running electrical wire to the shed to build the workshop. The idea here is to spread some epoxy on at the joint where each fin touches the rocket body, and then to use the PVC pipe to run along the full length, creating a nice, smooth, rounded fin fillet.

a first pass

Above is a picture showing my partial progress with this technique. It can take some practice getting the right epoxy consistency with the thickener, and also using the pipe to create the rounded fillet. But once finished, this will provide the third and final bond of the fins to the rocket body.

As noted above, you can wait before removing the masking tape, but don’t wait so long that the epoxy fully cures.

After one set of fins is complete, as shown above, you can rotate the rocket 120 degrees and repeat (although give the epoxy some time to cure, first, before rotating). Repeat a second time, and then rotate and repeat a third.

Once all the fin fillets are completed, you’re done with the actual rocket build! The rest is cosmetic work or just attaching things to this newly constructed rocket: priming and painting (which, frankly, is optional), attaching recovery harnesses and parachutes (slightly less optional but simple), and conducting ground testing.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 10: epoxy injection for fins

Fair warning here: I’m actually splitting the “attaching the fins” information into three separate posts. This is not out of a sense of malice or sadism, but simply because there’s a lot going on with the fins.

The prior post (part 1 of 3 in this epic fin series) was basically the prep work and first few steps to secure the fins to the rocket body by using some epoxy and inserting the fin root through the wall where it can bond against the motor mount tube inside. Along with a printed fin alignment guide and a bunch of heavy objects, this keeps the fins in place and serves as a starting point for the multi-step approach for attaching them.

This post (part 2 of 3) involves epoxy, a syringe, and a bunch of strategically drilled holes. This might sound like the setup to a bad joke, but it’s actually literal and straightforward.

If you’ve been following along so far (whether with your actual fiberglass rocket build, or just conceptually in your head), you know that inside the airframe there is a motor mount tube, held in place and centered with the aptly-named centering rings. The top and bottom of each fin should just barely be touching a centering ring, inside.

fiberglass rocket with fins attached, sitting on workbench, partly suspended in air
ready to inject!

The idea here is to take the syringe and inject the epoxy into each hole. There’s two holes per fin (so 12 total in this case for 6 fins), with one hole on either side of each fin, roughly 1/2 inch away from the fin. Using a typical plastic syringe that you can find at a local drugstore, you can inject 10 ml at a time, and you should inject roughly 25 ml for each side of the rocket, split evenly among 4 holes. The rocket should be positioned horizontally and completely level, as in the above picture.

Once the epoxy has been injected into these 4 holes, you tilt the entire rocket forwards and then backwards, slowly, in order to move the epoxy around inside and completely coat the area where each fin touches the motor mount. The centering rings on each side should create a “dam” to prevent the epoxy from going any further past the edge of the fin, if everything is aligned reasonably well.

(If not, well, the epoxy may ooze out some of the other holes below a little. Not a huge deal, but may require a bit of extra cleanup.)

Once the epoxy is spread evenly inside, it needs some time to cure. Come back a few hours later. At this point, you can rotate the rocket 1/3 of the way around and repeat the process for the next 4 holes, and then finally a third time after that. Ensure each time that the rocket is level as the epoxy cures, so it doesn’t slowly ooze and collect in a lopsided fashion. This would not be ideal for a uniform fin attachment, it could also throw the rocket off balance in its weight.

epoxy in plastic mixing cup with popsicle stick on workbench
two part epoxy mix

Above is a picture of the two part epoxy mix (resin and hardener) when combined and thoroughly stirred in a small plastic cup. The syringe I used is pictured as well. You may need several since they can get clogged over time.

One final note here: you can also mix some chopped carbon fiber (pictured below) with the epoxy, and again mix thoroughly. The color will darken noticeably. This epoxy mixed with chopped carbon fiber will significantly strengthen the bond as it cures. In other words, those fins are never coming off.

epoxy darkened with chopped carbon fiber, in plastic mixing cup with popsicle stick on workbench
epoxy mixed with chopped carbon fiber

This epoxy injection technique is pretty cool, and it’s been tested and used successfully for many years. Try it!

In my next post (part 3 of 3 in this series on attaching fiberglass fins) I’ll briefly cover the final step: creating external fin fillets where each fin touches the rocket airframe. It gives one final layer of protection to ensure the fins are secured, and also looks more aerodynamic.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 9: attaching fins

Exciting times! I’m ready to attach the fins.

If you’ve never put together a rocket before, well, I’m baffled that you are reading this blog. But typically, a rocket will have either 3 or 4 fins, which are placed symmetrically – equally spaced out, in the 360 degrees around the center. If 3 fins, then they’d be 120 degrees apart; if 4 fins, then 90 degree spaces.

This rocket has 3, and then another 3 aligned above them for a total of 6, each spaced out by 120 degrees. I think having 6 in this arrangement is purely aesthetic, as opposed to just having 3. Who knows?

I’ve used this two part epoxy before (resin and hardener) in one or two previous steps with this rocket construction. But this is the first time I’m using it in larger quantities.

rocket with fins attached, lying on workbench and partly suspended in air
back that up

Basically, I used a fin alignment guide (which I found online for free and printed out) to ensure that the fins were aligned properly, spaced exactly 120 degrees apart all the way around. I then prepared some of the epoxy and applied it with a popsicle stick (sophisticated technology), applying it to the edges or “roots” of each fin as if I were buttering a piece of toast. I inserted each fin into its slot, where the fin edge or root with the epoxy is pressed up against the motor mount inside. This is the first of several steps to ensure the fins are securely attached, starting with the interior.

To hold everything in place while this initial round of epoxy cures, I had a couple options. I saw some fancier solutions that other people have done involving using jigsaws and drills to cut out holes in large plywood sheets, and lots of vises and clamps.

That seemed like a lot of work, so I just used some rubber bands and propped the rocket/ fins up against some heavy objects like cans of paint or bricks while it cured (making sure nothing could move, and that the fins were aligned perfectly according to the alignment guide).

For a closer look at the epoxy, I included this photo as well, since it’s critical to this and the next few steps. I used West System epoxy as it was highly recommended, and it works great. The 105 is the epoxy resin, and 205 is the hardener. Each comes with a pump, and you just combine one pump of each into a mixing cup, and mix thoroughly for several minutes. It begins to cure pretty quickly, and the chemical reaction causes it to get extremely hot as it cures (to the point where it will burn you if you touch it, even through the plastic mixing cup, and steam is visibly coming off the top).

mixing epoxy on workbench
mixing two-part epoxy

For most of the fin attachment points, I’m also mixing in some chopped carbon fiber (pictured here as well) which is, in certain places, injected inside with a syringe. The carbon fiber greatly strengthens the epoxy as it cures.

Next, I’ll continue using the epoxy to attach the fins via this injection method, along the inside. After that, a final application of carbon fiber-infused epoxy on the outside of the rocket to create fillets (i.e., just a narrow strip of epoxy along each area where the fin touches the outer rocket body, shaped into a curve to minimize drag).

Things are really coming along – with the fins finally attached, it’s starting to look like a rocket!

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 8: rail buttons

Before I jump into the riveting details of rail buttons, I’ll take a step back and explain what this is, and why it matters.

Every rocket has a “center of pressure” and a “center of gravity” (or center of mass). I won’t go into detail about these concepts here, but basically, the relationship between these two things is important for a rocket to remain stable in the air. When it’s moving at a fast speed, the fins help keep it going in a straight line (i.e., up) because of the way the air pushes on them. I’m oversimplifying these concepts, but this is the point:

When the rocket is sitting on the launch pad and first lifts off, it is not moving quickly enough to be stable. If you tried launching a rocket from a pad without any kind of support, there would be a pretty good chance that it would not ascend perfectly vertically. It’s entirely possible it would not ascend at all, as it might tip over and fly horizontally (perhaps into a crowd of spectators). This is not ideal for your rocket, or for the spectators.

The solution to this is to provide just enough support for the rocket to keep going vertically as soon as it launches and just begins to (quickly) gain speed. With small model rockets, a thin metal pole is all you need, just a couple of feet high. The rocket will have a small launch lug (basically like a plastic straw) attached to its side, which slides down over the metal pole, ensuring the rocket takes off using the pole as a guide.

For larger rockets, it’s the same concept but with slightly fancier hardware. Instead of a thin pole, the launch pad will have a much bigger rail standing vertically for support. And instead of a plastic straw glued to the rocket, it will have rail buttons, made from plastic and secured by drilling a hole in the rocket body and attaching with metal screws.

metal screws and black plastic rail buttons on workbench
the parts

The concept is extremely simple, and installation is fairly simple as well. It just requires measuring where you want the two rail buttons to be located, marking the spots, and drilling to insert the hardware. In general, you want the rail buttons exactly halfway between two fins, with one very close to the bottom (aft) end of the rocket, and another some distance up the side.

closeup view of rail button attached to red rocket body
the finish

Often one or both is drilled and screwed directly into a centering ring. Whether that’s possible or not on your particular rocket, it also helps to add a small amount of epoxy just to make sure it’s secured in place. Here, you can see where I attached the rail buttons on this fiberglass rocket.

further back view of red rocket body with two rail buttons secured
the alignment

And that’s it! Rail buttons installed, and the rocket can be flown from a standard launch rail.

The next step will require slightly more work: attaching the fins, which are of critical importance in achieving that fashionable “rocket” appearance.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 7: motor retainer

As I’ve written extensively about before, it’s absolutely critical that your rocket has a good motor retention system. You don’t want the motor falling out of the bottom of the rocket. For one thing, it may land on someone’s head. More importantly, if the motor falls out, your rocket will not perform as intended.

There are different types of motor retention mechanisms, ranging from the extremely simple (e.g., wrap it with masking tape so it’s a tighter fit) to relatively simple (e.g., metal clips or hooks to keep it in place), to slightly more complicated but significantly more reliable hardware, such as a machined aluminum motor retainer. That’s what I went with for my previous rocket (54mm motor mount) and that’s what I’m using again here (75mm).

metal screws in wooden centering ring, on workbench with drill nearby
time to drill

The main question for me was: how am I going to attach it? The aluminum motor retainer has pre-drilled holes for screws, but generally you would attach it directly to the closest centering ring, which would be the “aft” one, or the one closest to the bottom of the rocket.

With this rocket, everything is fiberglass, and I wasn’t sure about drilling this many small holes in a fiberglass centering ring (“CR”). The ring is extremely thin, and the screw inserts would extend far beyond it instead of sitting comfortably inside it. Plus, I needed something to fill a gap between where I wanted my aft CR to sit, and where the motor retainer would be located.

So for multiple reasons, I decided to buy and use an additional wooden CR (two, actually, as I needed to fill a 1/2″ space and each wooden CR is exactly 1/4″ in width).

It worked out well. I used wood glue to attach the two CRs together, and then after it dried, I drilled holes and inserted each of the metal screw inserts. I then attached the aluminum motor retainer to the wooden CRs with screws, as pictured here.

black aluminum motor retainer attached to wooden centering ring
motor retainer

I was then able to attach the whole thing – additional CRs and metal retainer – to the motor mount tube using epoxy.

aluminum motor retainer attached to red fiberglass motor mount
business end of the motor mount

To be honest, this was one of the easier and more straightforward steps in the assembly of this rocket. This type of retainer is reliable, though, and now I have one less reason to worry when I launch.

There are still plenty of other things to worry about, plenty of things that can go wrong – sometimes catastrophically – and I’m sure at least one of them will.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 6: e-bay

On to the electronics bay! My pride and joy.

Actually, though, I’m going to split this into two posts, just as I did with my last rocket build. Right now, I’m just putting together the frame of the e-bay – the exoskeleton, if you will – and later I’ll do a separate, longer post once I add all the electronics inside.

black circular aluminum bulk plate for e-bay
aluminum bulk plate

The basic components here include the 11 inch fiberglass tube (which acts as a coupler), a vent band or ring around the center of the tube, and an aluminum bulk plate on each end (see above for an unnecessarily zoomed-in picture of the bulk plate). The bulk plates are “stepped” with an edge or lip so that the inner part fits tightly inside the e-bay tube, and the outer edge with its slightly larger diameter prevents the bulk plate from being pushed any further and falling in. Basically the same concept as a sewer lid.

black circular aluminum bulk plate clamped to workbench with metal shavings
drilling through metal

Each bulk plate came with a pre-drilled hole in the center, but I needed to drill several more holes through the aluminum for the all-thread rods which run through the entire e-bay and connect the two ends together. A few tips for drilling through metal:

  • Use a drop of oil.
  • Go slowly – there’s no need to rush.
  • Wear protective eye gear – this process throws around metal shavings that could cause serious eye damage.
  • Clamp down the metal you are drilling through and make sure it’s secured.
bulk plates and all thread rods for e-bay
exoskeleton of the e-bay

With the drilling complete, I attached the basic hardware. Each side has a forged eyebolt going through the center, with washers on either side of the bulk plate and a nut to secure it. I also added a dab of epoxy on both sides just to hold everything in place permanently.

Then I inserted the all-thread rods through each bulk plate; they also have washers and nuts on either side of the plate. These aren’t meant to be secured permanently, however, as at least one side needs to be removable in order to access the interior of the e-bay and the sled with electronics.

red fiberglass e-bay on workbench
looking good

Above is a picture of the completed e-bay. Nothing too complicated – again, this is just the frame or skeleton of the e-bay, without the electronics inside. But you need to start with the outer part.

I’ll put together a more comprehensive article once I figure out the sled, flight computer and battery, switch, and wiring, along with the PVC pipe on the outside for storing black powder charges, just as I did for my previous e-bay.

But first, I’m going to finish building the rocket itself. Next up: the motor retainer.

How to build a fiberglass rocket, part 3: airframe prep

My first couple of posts related to the Darkstar Extreme were just recapping my progress in high power rocketry to date, and outlining everything that’s needed in order to build this particular rocket. But now I’m finally ready to begin assembly.

As mentioned previously, the “kit” basically includes all of the rocket airframe parts (shown below), along with some nylon recovery harnesses and miscellaneous hardware (steel screws, nuts, washers, forged eye bolts, and quick links). The first thing I did after unboxing everything was soak the fiberglass pieces in water for 24 hours, to remove any remaining mold release agent. In other words, as the proud parent of a new rocket, one of the first things you should do is to give it a proper bath.

fiberglass rocket airframe parts, soaking in water pre-assembly
exciting, fast-paced action!

After rinsing off and drying each piece, I moved everything out to the workshop. Time to begin construction of the workshop’s inaugural rocket.

Just to provide some overall structure for what I’m planning to do here: the idea is to assemble the fiberglass airframe, but in a way that allows it to separate at multiple key points in the future. In certain places I’ll use epoxy to permanently attach pieces together, but in several other locations I’ll need to measure and drill holes, and then insert small nylon screws (“shear pins”) which are strong enough to hold the pieces of the airframe together, but which also have the ability to shear in half when sufficient force is applied (e.g. a small controlled explosion), allowing the rocket to separate and a parachute to deploy.

fiberglass rocket airframe parts on workbench
marking the airframe for future drilling

To help visualize how all these pieces go together, the major components of this airframe (from top to bottom, when the rocket is standing vertically on the launch pad) are: the nosecone (grey, with aluminum tip) permanently epoxied to a 6″ coupler; a 24″ payload section; an 11″ coupler which serves as an electronics bay; and a 52″ booster section. There is also a 1.5″ band or ring that fits around the e-bay/ coupler, and six fins (three larger, three smaller). Inside the booster section is a motor mount with a smaller 75mm diameter and 4 centering rings.

fiberglass rocket airframe pieces on workbench, pre-assembly
labeled for your viewing pleasure

Here you can see a lot of measuring, marking, and drilling on the airframe. More specifically, there are 3 holes drilled in the nosecone/ coupler and the payload section, which can then be secured together (and later separated) with shear pins. Another 3 holes and shear pins connect the “bottom” of the e-bay/ coupler to the long booster section. And then three more holes – this time plugged with steel screws serving as rivets – connect the “top” of the e-bay/ coupler to the payload section. These steel rivets ensure the payload section does not separate from the e-bay during flight, but they allow diassembly on the ground by removing the rivets, if needed.

fiberglass rocket airframe parts, pre-assembly
crude but effective sanding technique

Finally, in the middle 1.5″ of the e-bay/ coupler, I marked the location of the band or ring that will be secured to the coupler with epoxy, shortly after this.

Aside from measuring, labeling, and drilling, I also needed to sand many parts of the fiberglass airframe. In general, it’s helpful to sand anywhere that epoxy will be used to ensure better bonding. This includes a few external areas (like the one pictured above), as well as the areas on the centering rings where they will touch the motor mount and the booster section; the edges of all six fins, along with the areas that the fins will touch on both the motor mount and booster section, and so on. Lots of sanding here with coarse (60 grit) sandpaper.

So begins the thrilling assembly of the Darkstar Extreme.