Just to follow up on my last post, I wanted to provide some additional information and the actual flight data, and briefly explain what this all means, especially for all those folks reading this who are not familiar with anything related to rockets or flight computers. And for anyone who has significant experience flying rockets, you may find the below information interesting as well, without any explanation!
As a starting point: a flight computer is basically a very small circuit board that you put inside your rocket, and it has a bunch of neat built-in gadgets to measure exactly how high the rocket went, and how fast, and what interesting events happened when. I’ll explain more below.
This is the relevant flight data for the flight I mentioned in my last post, which went over one mile high:
So what does all of this mean?
First of all, it means that the rocket flew to a maximum height of about 7,579 ft – you can see this in “maximum height.” This measurement is made by a barometer taking air pressure readings in the flight computer, starting at ground level on the launch pad, and then many times while it’s in flight. There’s also a GPS chip on this flight computer and you can see it also independently measures the height using GPS, but I’m just going to assume the lower value is more likely correct.
The flight computer also records the maximum speed, which in this case was 904 feet per second (fps), which is equivalent to Mach 0.8, or a little bit slower than the speed of sound.
The total flight time was 145 seconds (just over two minutes), and there’s a further breakdown of how long the rocket spent going up and then coming back down.
The graph is even more intuitive:
This reflects the same data described above. The black line is the easiest to understand: it represents the rocket’s actual height over time. As is generally the case (unless you experience a catastrophic failure), the rocket zooms off the launch pad extremely rapidly and hits a maximum height early (here, just over 7,500 ft, as you can see from the black units to the left side), and then after parachutes deploy, it descends more slowly.
The red line is speed (extremely high at first and then plummets quickly), and the orange or gold line is acceleration. Both of these units are off to the right side of the graph.
It’s definitely fun to build and fly a rocket, but with modern flight computers and the ability to record all kinds of really precise data, you can really geek out on this stuff. How high can I fly? How fast can my rocket go? Is it descending at the right speed, or do I need a bigger (or smaller) parachute next time? This can really help refine your building and flying skills through a trial and error process, because you have access to reliable data. And needless to say, this can also help you find your rocket if you lose it because it lands really far away out of sight. In that situation, you’ll find the GPS coordinates onboard to be incredibly useful!
The National Association of Rocketry (“NAR”) has established a “Rocket Science Achievement Award” program, which currently has three categories of awards:
- Mile Marker
- Faster Than Sound, and
- Data Downlink.
The awards are pretty straightforward: to achieve Mile Marker, you need to fly a rocket to at least 1 mile (5,280 ft), and you can get additional awards for 2 or 3 miles, or as many as you’d like, in one-mile increments. To achieve Faster Than Sound, you just have to fly a rocket at a speed that is Mach 1.0 or higher. And the Data Downlink award involves real-time telemetry for data beyond just basic altitude and acceleration.
For any of these awards, you have to have documentation of the flight data, including a copy of the data file from a commercial flight computer. If you submit this documentation and it’s accepted, you’ll be awarded a high quality printed certificate and your name will be added to the NAR website, which is pretty cool.
I recently achieved the Mile Marker award when I flew my Darkstar Extreme rocket to 7,579 ft AGL. I plan on even higher flights in the future, of course, and I’d like to try to achieve an award in each of the three categories that NAR established. The data downlink one should be the most interesting and will require a bit of creativity.
In case you’re interested, the award page is here!
I gave a brief preview in a recent post, but I’m excited to report that the L3 Fusion rocket is now finished. This is a kit available for pre-order from Scott Binder at SBR, and I was fortunate enough to partner with Scott to do a test build on his latest design.
As mentioned a while back, the L3 Fusion is a larger, upscaled version of his classic Fusion rocket. It has a 5.5″ diameter airframe and is about 90 inches in length, with a 75mm motor mount tube capable of flying on an M motor. What’s particularly great about this rocket is that it combines strength with being lightweight. Its cardboard airframe weighs in at just 11 lbs when fully loaded, minus the motor.
And yet it’s fully double-tubed from top to bottom, and the entire interior is coated with West System epoxy to harden and strengthen it. This thing can take a beating, and it is more than strong enough to handle an M motor.
I plan to fly it for L3 certification on an Aerotech M-1297 motor. Believe it or not, this will be my first time using a reloadable (RMS) motor, and my first time putting one together. I’ve previously just used disposable (DMS) motors since they’re so easy to handle – minimal preparation, and then discard entirely after the single use. But having now built the M-1297 in preparing to fly, I have to admit there’s something satisfying about putting together the motor yourself. Of course, it’s a bit messy and you’ll get your hands dirty – and the casing is not cheap – but the end product speaks for itself.
In addition to building the rocket, we also set up a small studio and filmed the entire project, from start to finish. Throughout the process, I try to explain what I’m doing, though I’m far from an expert (I am, after all, just applying for my L3 certification). It was a lot to film, and as you can imagine, the video editing process is extremely time-consuming (props to Scott for undertaking this). But it should make for a great tutorial on YouTube, and I’ll post the video as soon as it’s ready!
It’s true that it tends to rain a lot throughout the year in the Pacific Northwest, but there are two or three months in the summer that are absolutely beautiful – warm and sunny every day, and virtually never a cloud in the sky. And as an added bonus, in some of the areas around the largest mountains, like Mt. Rainier or Mt. Olympus, there are countless wildflowers in full bloom at this time. While I’ve been focused on rocketry throughout 2020, this was a great opportunity to take a break, get outdoors, and do some hiking.
We spent a few days in Mt. Rainier National Park, and then headed up north to the San Juan Islands for a few days as well. First, in the Mt. Rainier area, we hit Naches Peak Trail. This was a great introduction to the area. It was loop trail that offered stunning views and wildflowers along the way, overlooking a beautiful lake and with Mt. Rainier in the distance (in our case, unfortunately obscured by clouds that day).
The second day, we hiked the Skyline Trail at Paradise, which is south of Mt. Rainier. Paradise is aptly named – this was probably the most beautiful hike we’ve ever done, including the immediate landscape around us (trees, valleys, wildflowers) and the proximity to Mt. Rainier, and fantastic views of other mountain chains and peaks in every direction. In the distance you could see Mt. Baker to the north, and Mt. Adams and even Mt. Hood (in Oregon!) to the south.
Finally, we hiked up the Mount Fremont Lookout Trail from Sunrise, which is southeast of Mt. Rainier. This trail had more of a barren landscape, but offered the best views of Mt. Rainier itself:
After three days (and three intense hikes) around Mt. Rainier, we went up to the San Juan Islands. And after that, we took one more day trip out to the Mt. Rainier area again and did the Tolmie Peak trail. But I’ll save some of these photos for a future update!
You may have noticed a few recent changes to the website, and there are more in the works. I just thought I’d take a moment to explain some of the things that I’ve been doing.
First, the website now has a new domain, “improbableventures.org,” instead of the original wordpress domain, “improbableventures.home.blog.” Either one will work and you’ll be directed to the same website, but getting a custom domain was the appropriate next step.
Similarly, we created a banner for the website last year, and it’s gone through several iterations. We’re still playing around with it and are looking forward to unveiling a new logo soon, as well.
And on that note, you may ask: who is “we”? Improbable Ventures is growing, with two new members of the team. We’ll roll out a more formal announcement with additional info soon, but wanted to give everyone a preview of where Improbable Ventures is headed, and what we’ll be doing in the near future! Our team will be:
- Posting more YouTube videos to our channel, detailing high power rocket construction;
- Designing and building a high-altitude two-stage rocket, capable of flying to 100,000 ft;
- Developing our own flight computer;
- Machining aluminum parts, and building an all-aluminum rocket;
- Designing and testing a liquid fuel rocket engine;
And some additional top secret projects to be announced later!
My previous high power rocket builds have been relatively slow. Don’t get me wrong – I generally don’t procrastinate, and once I get excited about a rocket project, I dive in and don’t come up for air until it’s complete.
But my techniques are far from perfectly efficient, and there’s often a substantial amount of long-curing epoxy, and then waiting for it to cure. And then… repeat. Each cure takes hours or even needs to wait overnight, and I’m doubly and triply reinforcing everything to make sure it’s sufficiently strong. Plus I’ve only built a few larger high power rockets so far and I was inevitably much slower in the beginning.
With this L3 Fusion build, however, I was able to move at a much more rapid pace. One big reason was using a fast-curing 12 minute epoxy. You just mix the resin and hardener and get to work. With a 12 minute cure, it’s amazing how quickly you can build!
That being said, for purposes of filming every step, this was still a marathon build session. It took a couple days of nonstop construction, even though the steps themselves are pretty simple and there was nothing that I hadn’t done before. At least, in principle. The “marathon” aspect was only because of filming and trying to make the most efficient use of our time.
We did have a few minor technical difficulties. Despite an excellent studio setup with a camera and tripod, external microphone, bright lights, and so on, there were several long stretches where we captured excellent video but the audio was completely missing. This meant we had to go back and figure out what went wrong with the microphone (troubleshooting this was much more difficult than you might think) and then re-shoot some of the steps. This turned out to have a silver lining, though, because the second time through I was substantially less inept than my initial attempts. Still inept, that is, but less so.
All in all, this was a really cool project, an awesome rocket build, and a successful video shoot. As soon as we’re done with the editing and have a final product, SBR will share the video on its YouTube channel (and I’ll share it as well, on my channel). In the meantime, if you’re looking to embark on your L3 certification, I highly recommend that you consider this L3 Fusion rocket!
Once I completed my level 2 certification, I had been spending a lot of time thinking about what, exactly, I should build for my level 3 project. And more generally, how should I approach it?
Cardboard or fiberglass?
I’ve built both cardboard and fiberglass rockets, and each has advantages depending on what you’re trying to achieve. I had initially assumed any L3 project would need to be fiberglass, and I’d been looking at some very large and very heavy rockets.
Fiberglass is more durable than cardboard, and is the strongest building material aside from metal. It won’t change size based on fluctuations in temperature, and it won’t swell up or get ruined if wet. This is particularly important since the rocket parts need to slide over each other using couplers. But the primary drawback of fiberglass is that it’s really heavy.
Cardboard (especially when properly reinforced with epoxy) is still durable but more lightweight, and that is a key characteristic when you are trying to defy gravity and launch something into the air. A cardboard rocket will go a lot higher than a fiberglass rocket on the same motor.
While agonizing over this fundamental choice, a solution appeared, from out of nowhere.
Deus ex machina
I had previously met and worked with Scott Binder, the owner of Scott Binder Rocketry (“SBR”), creator of the Fusion Rocket, as well as high power rocket motors and accessories. Scott’s shop is located in Walla Walla, Washington. His flagship rocket is the Fusion, but he’s recently been developing a new, larger version of the Fusion that is specifically for L3 certification – and long story short, I agreed to do some beta testing on this rocket.
In addition to building the rocket and using it for my L3 cert, I am going to create a video tutorial with Scott for the construction of this rocket, from start to finish. I’ll link to that as soon as it’s ready.
The L3 Fusion itself is roughly 90 inches in length and a 5.5 inch diameter. With a 75mm motor mount tube, it’s capable of flying an M motor, and I plan to fly it on an Aerotech M1297 for the cert flight. The great part about cardboard is that this rocket only weighs about 22 lbs fully loaded, and it should come close to 10,000 ft. at apogee on the M1297.
The electronics bay will have two RRC3 altimeters, each powered by a 9V battery, and will use omni-directional black powder charges for separation and deployment of the parachutes during flight. The drogue chute is 24 inches and the main chute is 84 in. Descent should be less than 20 feet per second under the main chute.
There are more details forthcoming, but right now I’m excited to dive into this L3 project! I need to begin putting together a comprehensive document describing the rocket, with a lot of technical information. Later, once I begin building, I’ll include a lot of detail about the construction process and materials, with plenty of photos documenting the build step by step. And much later, once it’s complete, the most exciting part: flight!
More to come soon!
This has been quite a year. I don’t mean for the world – yes, Australia was on fire, a global pandemic struck and is still ravaging the US, the economy is in free fall, there’s no end in sight, etc. That’s all true. But I mean for me personally. I set some goals back in January for 2020 and I’m crushing them. Like this:
I intended to write this post at the beginning of July, exactly halfway through the year, but things have been busy and time got away from me. I think it’s good to set goals at the beginning of a new year, but it’s just as important to pause a few times to seriously assess progress – or obstacles to progress – and sometimes, to revisit the goals when things change dramatically.
Clearly, a lot changed during this past year. Whatever your goals were at the outset of 2020, the world looked very different on January 1 from how it looks today, in August. Some goals have become literally impossible to achieve, due to external circumstances. Others are still achievable but have become significantly more difficult.
I wrote a post assessing my progress toward my own previously published goals for the year after the first quarter ended, in early April. In short, due to a scarcity of launch opportunities in the winter, and then the COVID-19 pandemic, I wasn’t able to launch anything or get any certifications in high power rocketry (“HPR”). But on the plus side, I transformed my backyard shed into a practical workshop (for rocketry), got a ham radio license so I could use a flight computer in a rocket with telemetry, and did some other cool stuff.
More recently, during the second quarter of the year, I did finally get the chance to fly a few rockets, which was amazing. I got my level 1 and also level 2 certifications in HPR, scoring some nifty badges and checking some major goals off my list. I also got a few additional post-L2 flights for more dual deploy experience.
My original goals for 2020 had also included getting my level 3 certification in HPR, the highest level offered by the National Association of Rocketry (“NAR”). In retrospect, this was pretty ambitious, even in a normal year. I had never launched even a small model rocket before last fall, and in less than a year I was planning to jump (plunge?) into high power stuff, getting multiple certifications.
And L3 in particular is significantly more difficult. True, it’s ultimately just building a larger rocket capable of flying on a more powerful motor (specifically an M, N, or O class motor). But it’s also a much more elaborate process.
NAR has a national L3 Certification Committee; generally two individuals per state are on this committee. You have to contact them and get one to serve as your advisor, and you need to find a second L3 individual as an advisor as well. You have to submit an L3 certification package and application, describing the rocket you intend to build in detail. As you build it, you have to thoroughly document everything you’re doing with plenty of photos and descriptions. Your advisors can question you and can perform on-site inspections of the rocket at any point in time. The rocket itself has to meet certain requirements, such as having fully redundant recovery systems. And of course, once it’s complete, you have to fly it with your advisors present as witnesses, including a successful recovery of the rocket.
That being said, it’s only August, and 2020 is not done yet. Rather, I should say that I’m not done with 2020 yet. I still have goals to achieve, and one of them is my L3 certification. The odds are against me, but I have a plan, and it might yet be possible to do this before the year is up.
Stay tuned for some exciting updates!